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Consequences Of A

Spring-And-Loop Theory:

The Electron

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by Floyd Maxwell, BASc

The Electron

An electron is a tiny magnet, described by an imaginary arrow called its spin, which has a curious quantum-mechanical property. If you pick any direction you wish, and decide to measure the direction of the spin, you will find that it points either along the direction you picked (spin up), or the other way (spin down). Somehow, the spin arrow is simply not allowed to point 30 degrees from the axis along which you aligned your measuring device -- or in any other direction except parallel or antiparallel.
- Hans Christian von Baeyer


And then there were 118

Conventional chemistry says that what makes one atom -- i.e. one element -- different from the next is the number of protons in the nucleus.

This is workable as a definition, yielding the Periodic Table of the Elements for example, but is otherwise rather arbitrary.

Different isotopes of the same element can have the seriously different property of one being radioactive and one not.

A few pounds of U-235 atoms can produce a very different effect than the same amount of U-238.

Still, the division by number of protons (and therefore by number of electrons...roughly) brought logic and order to chemistry in much the same way that F=ma brought reason to Newtonian physics.

Beyond the categories

Physics -- i.e. tEmP theories -- have taken many steps toward describing the atom and its building blocks.

The only problem is that physics today is hopelessly lost.

New categories of things are really new unknowns. New measurements raise new questions, and cause new problems.

Spring-And-Loop Theory reverses this trend.


Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone, and following one after the other like a flock of sheep. Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. Every time you do so you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before. Of course it will be a little thing, but do not ignore it. Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind. All really big discoveries are the results of thought.
- Alexander Graham Bell


Back to basics

Spring-And-Loop Theory has gone through quite the evolution.

It began with the need to explain gravity.

To achieve this, without compromise, it had to come up with a uniquely different model of how everything works.

It soon became apparent this model was able to explain the most troubling aspects of physics.


The "Consequences Of A Spring-And-Loop Theory" have been many and varied.

Today Spring-And-Loop Theory can summarize by saying that the Universe is "a box full of marbles", with matter being the occasional bowling ball.

By the way, for the scale to be correct, the box full of marbles needs to be 1012 meters across -- a tetrameter is about one light-hour -- to house, on average, just one bowling ball.


Physics meets Chemistry

Spring-And-Loop Theory has modelled the atom, pinned down the neutrino and clarified the quantum world.

Yet the humble electron had to wait three years for its close-up.

The wait has been worth it.

We owe most of our great inventions and most of the achievements of genius to idleness -- either enforced or voluntary. The human mind prefers to be spoon-fed with the thoughts of others, but deprived of such nourishment it will, reluctantly, begin to think for itself -- and such thinking, remember, is original thinking and may have valuable results.
- Agatha Christie


The electron's role

tEmP theories describe the electron as "a subatomic particle...with a mass of about 1/1836 of a proton" [wiki].

Spring-And-Loop Theory thinks electrons are more like an impurity or dopant.

An extra marble in the box.

The power of impurity

Semiconductor chips work because of impurities. Add a bit of one element to an otherwise pure bunch of another element, and you get new properties.

Similarly, fit an extra electron into an atom and you get new properties.

But here you have to quickly add "don't forget you need to add another proton in the nucleus!" to keep tEmP theorists happy.

But why is that the case?

Why do tEmP theories insist we match protons and electrons?

The most important product of knowledge is ignorance. The ignorance that leads you to ask "Why...?" questions.
- David Gross


Spring-And-Loop Theory in review

Spring-And-Loop Theory says that neutrinos are surplus springs.

They can "plow through a light year of lead with only half being stopped" because they need to locate new space -- i.e. find themselves a home -- before that becomes their final "stop".

If neutrons are composed of a proton, an electron and an anti-neutrino -- and the neutrino is just a space-creating spring (i.e. non-matter) -- then that implied that the electron was more like the Moon to the proton's Earth.

Two spooks become one

"Plus attracts minus" is like gravity's "spooky action at a distance".

Fine in theory, but completely unsubstantiated in real life.

Spring-And-Loop Theory, having modelled gravity, then realized that electromagnetic attraction was just more "space bending". And was pretty happy with this reduction.

Scientific concepts are inner pictures.
- Heinrich Hertz


The fly in the ointment

The remaining concern was that, if both protons and electrons were "spring-loop systems", it meant there were three fundamental objects in Spring-And-Loop Theory -- (1) ultra tiny springs of energy, (2) large lumbering protons and (3) medium sized electrons.

(1) A pure energy system -- the Universal Matrix (UM) of springs -- was easy to imagine. And came with the bonus of resolving the Vacuum Catastrophe all by itself.

(2) Lower energy matter loops were the gravity-creators, and essential to the world of things.

What nagged was why two different matter systems could co-exist with each other, and the higher energy UM, without mixing.

Partial resolution

Mulling this over for the past few years, Spring-And-Loop Theory realized that matter loops maintained their nature -- despite the ultra high energy spring jackhammers all around -- precisely because they were the odd man out.

In Quantum World, Spring-And-Loop Theory calculated there were 1073 times as many springs as loops.

Matter loops co-exist in an ultra high energy spring-filled Universe precisely because the Universe is already filled up. The marbles in that box full of marbles make sure that everything everywhere is filled to the brim with marbles.

Yet this doesn't "break down" or otherwise destroy matter -- despite the more than sufficient power within springs -- because there would be nowhere for the crushed matter pieces to go.

Like flotsam and jetsam, matter drifts in the Universal Matrix, because it can't become UM.

I would prefer to speak openly and like an oracle to give answers serviceable to all mankind, even though no one should understand me, rather than to conform to popular opinions and so win the praise freely scattered by the mob.
- Epicurus

The UM leaves matter alone because it already takes up the least space. Break one ball into two, or ten, and they will collectively take up more space than the original ball.

And breaking up matter would take some of the spring's energy.

But the entire Universe is filled with exactly the same thing -- springs of exactly the same high energy.

With that ultra uniformity -- confirmed with the Planck -- demolishing the lunacy of the Big Bang, by the way.

So if the springs in one part of the UM were to use up some of their energy crushing an atom, they wouldn't be able to support the pressure of 10154 springs bearing down on them. So they in turn would be crushed.

But when one thing gets crushed, something else must get bigger.

And matter loops are back to their original size.


Any problem can be solved
using the materials in the room.
- Edwin Land


The breakthrough

A new insight was needed.  Then...

"Unpaired electrons create magnetic fields"

Viewed recently, this not-quite-right phrase led Spring-And-Loop Theory one step closer to realizing how magnetism works.

Wikipedia says it thusly:

In a paramagnetic material there are unpaired electrons, i.e. atomic or molecular orbitals with exactly one electron in them. While paired electrons are required by the Pauli exclusion principle to have their intrinsic ('spin') magnetic moments pointing in opposite directions, causing their magnetic fields to cancel out, an unpaired electron is free to align its magnetic moment in any direction. When an external magnetic field is applied, these magnetic moments will tend to align themselves in the same direction as the applied field, thus reinforcing it.
- Wiki

Summary? "Unpaired electrons" can "align" with magnetism.


Man is not a circle with a single centre;
he is an ellipse with two foci.
Facts are one, ideas are the other.
- Victor Hugo


The leap


To continue its ultimate act of reinvention, Spring-And-Loop Theory had to somehow imagine all of the electron's properties with just two things: springs and loops.

What did it mean, for example, that an electron was unpaired?*

Discarding the "spin" label was easy enough, but why were electrons happiest in pairs?

Today's scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.
- Nikola Tesla

Even ardent tEmP theorists have to admit that electron pairing is almost arbitrary.

Indirect proof? While the addition of a second electron turns reactive Hydrogen into passive Helium, other orbitals need eight. And incredibly, even more audacious orbits find their bliss with no more (nor less) than ten electrons. Why the different numbers?

And most gut-wrenching of all, the fourth electron orbital level fills up before the third one does. Where's the Aufbau in that?

Understanding is what science is all about
and science is a great deal more than
mere mindless computation.
- Roger Penrose


"I was in the pool!"

Spring-And-Loop Theory, realizing that it was gravity that caused electrons to orbit the nucleus, pictured the strong-force-free nucleus as a space-contracting zone.

Then Spring-And-Loop Theory saw something from a new angle.


Always go too far,
because that's where you'll find the truth.
- Albert Camus


A fractional gravity effect

The Universal Matrix of springs is most insistent that every spot in the box full of marbles contain a marble.

But it is no miracle worker.

At the smallest scale, it is possible to have a space no spring can easily fill. A fractional space.

To understand truth one must have a very sharp, precise, clear mind. Not a cunning mind but a mind that is capable of looking without any distortion. A mind innocent and vulnerable.
- J. Krishnamurti

My kingdom for a...

It is possible to fit five in a four seater.

And suitcases can be surprisingly expansive.

Yet sans shoehorn, atoms need a more fundamental method.

Gravity to the rescue!

Just because an apple falls 100
times out of 100 does not mean
it will fall on the 101st.
- Derek Landy


Warning: What goes in might come out!

Sorry to say, STP, there is at least one legitimate "potential energy" scenario.

A box with one too few springs.

And that leaves us charged with describing the electron's true nature.



The Neutrino's Cousin

Every system has some give in it.

Our solar system has nine eight planets, and other systems suggest the numbers and sizes of planets can vary a lot.

Orbiting bodies affect other orbiting bodies.

What we see is mainly what we look for.
- John Lubbock

This is seen most readily at the next scale downward, where moons orbit a planet.

Detailed study of Jovian and Saturnian moon systems has revealed that many of their moons orbit at a fixed rate relative to the other moons.

Their need for harmony and order in rotation mirrors the electron's.

Shim one, shim them all

Scaling from the planetary to the atomic, we find electrons in shells orbiting in layers. And a great deal of laissez faire.

Why is that?

Quantum non-explanation Mechanics thinks the smallest scales are the most random. Yet the smallest things we know of seem to cooperate in the strictest way we know of.

Profound but contradictory ideas may exist side by side, if they are constructed from different materials and methods and have different purposes. Each tells us something important about where we stand in the universe, and it is foolish to insist they must despise each other.
- Neil Postman

Let's return to the Spring-And-Loop Theory's view of things, where we have a box full of marbles, with a bowling ball sized matter loop every lighthour.

A highly uniform system at the lowest level.

How can we change the properties of "a chunk of it", with just the two things that make it up?

The Answer?

A gravity-shrunk nucleus box creates just enough room for an extra marble. But something else is still needed.

Pressure. A lot of pressure.

Enough pressure to force an extra marble into the box.

And then? You get new properties.

Human science fragments everything
      in order to understand it,
kills everything
      in order to examine it.
- Tolstoy


New Cola

Consider what happens when you pressurize a container of water. That's all, just carbonate it. What do you get?

You get soda water, a whole new beverage. And you get fizz.

Electrons make atoms fizz.

Mediocre minds dismiss anything that reaches beyond their own understanding.
- Rochefoucauld

Like unchilled soda pop, metal atoms are more fizzy than most.

When fizzyness can spread from one atom to the next, you have current. Electricity propagated.

tEmP theories allow seven billion people to connect at light speed ...over an increasingly controlled Internet. But they don't know what those electrons really are.

Truth in science can best be defined as the working hypothesis best suited to open the way to the next better one.
- Konrad Lorenz


The shocker

Electrons are neutrinos.

Matter-bound and cramped but neutrinos just the same.


These are not to be confused with "electron neutrinos".

Spring-And-Loop Theory has never thought there were the three (or four) types of neutrinos that tEmP theories say magically oscillate from one to the next "in flight".


That which has always been accepted
by everyone, everywhere,
is almost certain to be false.
- Valery


The slowest guns in the West

Neutrinos emitted by stars must travel for years -- at light speed -- before finding their place.

Electrons, i.e. matter-bound neutrinos, have found their place.

But it is very crowded.

So crowded, it slows them by a factor of ten to one hundred.

"electrical signals propagate as a wave" - Wiki

More like those pencil pens where you push one lead out the bottom by pushing one in the top.






Let's say this proposal by Spring-And-Loop Theory is a stretch.

It is something far outside of conventional understanding.

But it follows, logically, from earlier steps.

Steps that helped refine what a neutrino is, why stars rotate differently than expected and why there is no strong force.

Most importantly of all, it conflicts with no other part of Spring-And-Loop Theory.

In fact, once again, Spring-And-Loop Theory has become simpler, and thus better, with this new explanation.

Faith is a state of openness or trust. To have faith is like when you trust yourself to the water. You don't grab hold of the water when you swim, because if you do you will become stiff and tight in the water, and sink. You have to relax, and the attitude of faith is the very opposite of clinging, and holding on. In other words, a person who is fanatic in matters of religion, and clings to certain ideas about the nature of God and the universe becomes a person who has no faith at all. They are holding tight when the attitude of faith is to let go, and become open to truth, whatever it might turn out to be.
- Alan Watts





* - Electron pairing is more like tire balancing. Add a wheel weight to one side, and your tire will need the same on the opposite side (all else being equal).

Sure you can pack an extra electron/neutrino/spring into an atomic system, but to be stable, the system needs to be in balance.

Evening up the number of electrons balances the atomic wheel.

By the way, filling an orbital makes an atom stable by taking away all of the gravitational potential energy that had been created by the nucleus space bender.




The Speed Of Light   Black Holes   Einstein's Equation   The Ether   Gravity
222 Answers   The Atom   Quantum World   Neutrino   Black Holes Revisited
The Comedy Of Science   et=mc3   Comparing Physics Theories
Diffuse Interstellar Bands   Einstein's Ether Talk   No Strong Force
The Electron   Relativity   Unification   Assumptions   Modeling   The Greatest Story  

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